GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEMS AND THEIR ROLE IN PRECISION AGRICULTURE TECHNOLOGIES
Kholodyuk Oleksandr - Ph.D, Senior Lecturer of the Department of "Operation of a machine-tractor park and technical service" of Vinnytsia National Agrarian University (3, Sonychna St., Vinnytsia, 21008, Ukraine, e-mail: email@example.com. ua).
Today, global navigation satellite systems are being implemented in many structural units of the Ukrainian economic complex, many spheres of human activity, and every year they continue to develop. One of the main feature of these satellite systems is the requirements for high accuracy and speed of received data. They provide the opportunity to reduce operating costs and increase the efficiency of use of equipment and other resources.
Therefore, the use of navigation satellite systems for controlling machine units, establishing their location, monitoring soil condition and yield mapping is becoming increasingly relevant today.
The subject of study in this article were global navigation satellite systems NAVSTARGPS (USA), GLONASS (RF), GALILEO (EU), BEIDOU (China) and regional navigation systems NavIC (India) and QUASI-ZENITH (Japan).
The purpose of the work was to clarify and establish the main characteristics of global navigation satellite systems and their role in the implementation of precision agriculture technologies.
The task of the work was: to analyze the functional characteristics of global positioning satellite systems and their main elements; to find out principles of operation of systems: navigation, coordinates, time; to establish the accuracy of navigation systems; to substantiate the role of global positioning satellite systems in the effective implementation of precision agriculture technologies in agriculture.
The research methodology was based on the method of materialistic dialectics, methods of analysis and synthesis of both information from official sources and information from the works of other researchers.
Two major operators of satellite navigation systems the NAVSTAR GPS and GLONASS, which are similar in many respects, have been identified in the scientific work. Among the distinctive features there are the nature of the location, the motion of satellites in orbits and their total number, methods of encoding the CDMA and FDMA signals, the use of different coordinate systems WGS-84 and PZ90.11. As for the other two satellite navigation systems GALILEO and BEIDOU, they are developing rapidly with great ambition and potential. It is established that at the present time the accuracy of determining the coordinates of the GLONASS system is inferior to the performance of the American satellite navigation system GPS. GLONASS provides more accurate positioning in the northern latitudes and GPS in the middle.
It is noted that the positioning accuracy of machine units for the implementation of precision farming technologies can be improved (from 2 to 20 cm) due to differential signal correction with the help of free and commercial wideband satellite navigation subsystems. These services will allow to implement the tasks of precision driving, and therefore, to ensure the accurate implementation of sowing material, fertilizers and herbicides to spare them, accurate inter-row cultivation of industrial crops, accurate harvesting, etc., when performing agro-technological operations using ground vehicles and landless vehicles .
 Palamarchuk, V.D., Polishchuk, I.S., Mazur, V.A., Palamarchuk, O.D. (2017). Novitni tekhnolohiyi u roslynnytstvi. Vinnytsya. [in Ukrainian].
 Aniskevych, L.V., Voytyuk, D.H., Zakharin, F.M., Ponomarenko, S.O. (2018). Systema tochnoho zemlerobstva. Kyiv: NUBiP Ukrayina. [in Ukrainian].
 Revnivykh, S.H., Kosenko, V.E. (2019). Stan ta rozvytok sprytnykovykh navihatsiynykh system. [Status and development of satellite navigation systems]. XIII Vserossyyskoe soveshchanye po problemnomu upravlinnyu VSPU-2019: Trudy (17-20 lypnya 2019 r.). 1317–1322. [in Russian].
 Yarosh, S.P., Budanov, M.S., Haponov, O.YU., Flyachok, YU.O. (2019). Zahalʹnoyevropeysʹkyy hlobalʹnyy systemnyy vlasnyy zhytelʹ dlya velykykh boyovykh mozhlyvostey zelenykh raketnykh viysʹk. Zbirnyk naukovykh pratsivnykiv Kharkivsʹkoho natsionalʹnoho universytetu Povitryanykh Syl. 2 (60). 33–42. [in Ukrainian].
 Tkachenko, V. (2019). GPS i vsi-vsi. Merezhi ta Biznes. 3(106). 79–83. [in Ukrainian].
 Ken, A. (2018) Hlobalʹna systema pozytsionuvannya (GPS) Spoluchenykh Shtativ Ameryky. Doklad na 13-mu zasidanni Mizhnarodnyy komitet po HNSS, Sianʹ, Kytay, (5-9 lystopada 2018 roku). URL: http://www.unoosa.org/oosa/en/ourwork/ icg / zbory / icg-13 / icg-shchorichna zustrich-2018-rezentatsiyi.html [in English].
 Hlobalʹna navihatsiyna suputnykova systema GPS [Global GPS Navigation Satellite System]. Retrieved from https://www.glonass-iac.ru/guide/gnss/gps.php [in Russian].
 Hlobalʹna navihatsiyna suputnykova systema GLONASS [GLONASS Global Navigation Satellite System]. Retrieved from https://www.glonass-iac.ru/guide/gnss/glonass. [in Russian].
 Revnivykh S., (2018). Informatsiyni suputnykovi systemy. Stan ta evolyutsiya HLONASS. Doklad na 12-y Yezhehodnoyi bashkivsʹkoyi konferentsiyi po HNSS (7 travnya 2018). Bashka. [in English].
 Hlobalʹna navihatsiyna suputnykova systema GALILEO [GALILEO Global Navigation Satellite System]. Retrieved from https://www.glonass-iac.ru/guide/gnss/galileo.php [in Russian].
 Suputnykova navihatsiya: osnovni pryntsypy roboty [Satellite Navigation: Basic Principles of Operation]. Retrieved from https: //oko.ukr/articles/GPS_ GLONASS_AGPS_RTK/ [in Ukrainian].
 Hlobalʹna navihatsiyna suputnykova systema BEIDOU [BEIDOU Global Navigation Satellite System]. Retrieved from https://www.glonass-iac.ru/guide/gnss/beidou.php [in Russian].
 Napryamky 2020: BeiDou v noviy eri hlobalizatsiyi. Retrieved from https://www.gpsworld.com/directions-2020-beidou-in-the-new-era-of-globalization/ [in English].
 Hlobalʹna navihatsiyna suputnykova systema NavIC [Navic Global Navigation Satellite System]. Retrieved from https://www.glonass-iac.ru/guide/gnss/navic.php [in Russian].
 Hlobalʹna navihatsiyna suputnykova systema QZSS [QZSS Global Navigation Satellite System]. Retrieved from https://www.glonass-iac.ru/guide/gnss/qzss.php [in Russian].
 Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS). Retrieved from https: //qzss.go.jp/en/ index.html [in English].
 Platni syhnaly omnistar, trimble rtx, rtk ta terra star [Paid signals omnistar, trimble rtx, rtk and terra star]. Retrieved from https://geoagronavt.com.ua/ g2897460-platnye-signaly-omnistar [in Ukrainian].
 Sputnykova systema dyferentsialʹnoyi korrektsiyi OmniSTAR [OmniSTAR Satellite Differential Correction System]. Retrieved from http://www.kmcgeo. com/ Articles/OmniSTAR.htm [in Ukrainian].
 Stantsiyi tochnoho pozytsionuvannya, polevi laboratoriyi, skanery poshty ta inshi rishennya dlya ukrayinsʹkykh fermeriv [Precision positioning stations, field laboratories, soil scanners and other solutions for Ukrainian farmers]. Retrieved from https://systemnet.com.ua/ua/gmsp/ [in Ukrainian].
 Melʹnyk, V., Tsyhanenko, M., Anikeyev, A., Syrovytsʹkyy, K. (2015). Ekonomichna efektyvnistʹ elementiv elementiv tochnoho zemledeliya. Motrol: vvedennya v ekspluatatsiyu motoryzatsiyi ta enerhetyky v silʹsʹkomu hospodarstvi. (17), 3. 61–66. [in Ukrainian].
 Yak pochaly vprovadzhuvaty tochne zemlerobstvo na pidpryyemstvi [Getting Started with Precision Farming at Enterprise]. Retrieved from https://smartfarming. ua/ua-blog/kak-nachat-vnedryat-tochnoe-zemledelie-na-predpriyatii [in Ukrainian].
 Tsyhanenko, M. (2017). Makarenko M. Systema tochnoho zemlerobstva ekonomytʹ svoyi hroshi. Propozytsiya. 2. 56–59. [in Ukrainian].
 Klymova, N.V., Trubacheva, E.A. (2016) Ekonomichnyy rist silʹsʹkohospodarsʹkykh pidpryyemstv na bazi vnedrenykh innovatsiynykh resursivsberehayuchykh tekhnolohiy. Ekonomika: vchora, sʹohodni i zavtra. 4. 22–34. [in Ukrainian].
131 - Applied Mechanics
132 - Materials Science
133 - Industry engineering
141 - Power engineering, electrical engineering and electromechanics
208 - Agricultural engineering
The magazine "Engineering, Energy, Transport AIC" is included in the list of scientific professional editions of Ukraine on technical sciences
(Category "Б", Order of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine dated 02.07.2020 №886)
Certificate of state registration of mass media: No. 21906-11806 P dated 03/12/2016.
Founder of the journal: Vinnytsia National Agrarian University
Editor-in-chief: Tokarchuk Olexiy A.
Ph.D., Assoc., VNAU (Vinnytsia)
Deputy Editor-in-Chief: Veselovska Nataliia R.
Doctor of Technical Sciences, Full Prof., VNAU (Vinnytsia)
Executive Secretary: Polevoda Yuri A.
Ph.D., Assoc., VNAU (Vinnytsia)
Members of the Editorial Board:
Tokarchuk O.A. - Ph.D., Associate Professor, Vinnytsia National Agrarian University
Veselovska N.R. - Doctor of Technical Sciences, Full Professor, Vinnytsia National Agrarian University
Bulgakov V.M. - Doctor of Technical Sciences, Full Professor, Acad. NAAS, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine
Iskovich-Lototsky R.D. - Doctor of Technical Sciences, Full Professor, Vinnytsia National Technical University
Bandura V. N. - Ph.D., Full professor, Vinnytsia National Agrarian University
Polevoda Yu.A. - Ph.D., Associate Professor, Vinnytsia National Agrarian University
Tsurkan A.V. - Ph.D., Associate Professor, Vinnytsia National Agrarian University
Ivanchuk Y.V. - Ph.D., Associate Professor, Vinnytsia National Technical University
Jordan Todorov Maximov - Doctor of Technical Sciences, Full Professor, Technical University of Gabrovo (Bulgaria)
Type of publication: journal
Kind of publication: scientific
Publication status: domestic
Year of foundation: 1997
Periodicity: 4 times per year
Volume: 18-20 conv. print. sheet (А4)
ISSN: 2520-6168 (print version), (online version)
Language of publication: (mixed languages) Ukrainian, Russian, English
The sphere of distribution and category of readers: national, foreign, faculty, scientists, entrepreneurs.
The periodical edition is included to the List of scientific professional publications of Ukraine on technical sciences, approved by order of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine in 05.16.2016, No. 515.
The journal "Engineering, Energy, Transport AIC" is included in the "Catalog of Ukrainian Publications".
Subscription to the journal can be issued in each post office. The subscription index is 99720.
It was founded in 1997 under the title "Bulletin of the Vinnitsa State Agricultural Institute." According to the Decree of the Presidium of the Higher Attestation Commission of Ukraine of September 11, 1997, this publication received the status of a professional in which it is allowed to publish the main results of dissertation researches.
In 2001-2014 the journal published under the title “Collection of scientific works of Vinnytsia National Agrarian University. Series: Technical Sciences "(Certificate of State Registration of Mass Media KV No. 16644-5116 PR of 04/30/2010).
Since 2015 journal has title "Engineering, Energy, Transport AIC" (Certificate of State Registration of Mass Media No. 21906-11806 P dated 03/12/2016).